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Get great tips on how to maximize food safety in your commercial kitchen or restaurant.

Restaurant Food Safety Tips: Managing Temperature

Maintaining proper food temperature should be a constant process in your commercial kitchen, from the time it arrives through your back door to the time it arrives on the customer’s plate.

Restaurant Food Safety Tips: Managing TemperatureWhen the delivery truck arrives, immediately check food products for temperature.  Reject food that arrives above 41 degrees Fahrenheit.  Once you have ensured that the food has arrived in good condition, store it immediately.

Use a good thermometer.  Make good thermometers available to your staff to help with the temperature monitoring process.  Make sure you and your staff are trained in proper thermometer use:

Insert the thermometer into the thickest part of what you want to measure, and make sure the tip is in about the center.

Wait about five minutes for a proper reading.  Newer digital thermometers will beep when they have reached the absolute temperature.

Sanitize the thermometer before and after each use.

Constantly monitor food temperatures. Develop and post a temperature monitoring schedule for all the different food types you are currently storing and prepping.

Train other employees to help you maintain this schedule.  Stay out of the food temperature danger zone between 41 degrees and 145 degrees Fahrenheit.

For heated foods, post a safe temperature chart for cooked foods and train your employees to properly use a thermometer to check food temps during heating.

Safe Chilling and Heating Instructions

Keeping out of the 41 degrees to 145 degrees danger zone should be the top priority for all foods and ingredients.  The one exception to the danger zone rule is freshly cooked food, which can be held at 140 degrees before serving, although you should establish a deadline for hot held food after which you should either rapidly chill and store the product or dispose of it.

If you are chilling food that was heated, chilling it rapidly is the best way to prevent bacterial growth.  Use a blast chiller or a cold paddle to bring food temperature down quickly.

This also retains maximum food freshness.  After food has been rapidly cooled, store it in a commercial refrigerator or freezer.  Use storage containers to maintain freshness.

If you are serving cold foods, use a chill pan with built-in refrigerant and ice to ensure food maintains the correct temperature.  Monitor temperature to make sure food items are not rising above 40 degrees Fahrenheit.

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Restaurant Food Safety Tips: Proper Hand Washing

Health inspections are a regular part of life in any food service business, but too often it’s easy for a restaurant or commercial kitchen to fall into the trap of just passing the inspection rather than regularly practicing good food safety procedures.

This series is intended to help your business improve food safety practices, because it’s about more than passing an inspection.  It’s about protecting yourself, your employees, and your customer.

The FDA estimates that 81,000 people suffer from a food borne illness every year, and that 9,000 deaths are a direct result of a preventable food borne illness.  Food borne illnesses are still the leading cause of emergency room visits in the United States.

With those sobering statistics in mind, here are some tips to help you make safe food handling an integral part of your day-to-day routine:

Restaurant Food Safety Tips: Proper Hand Washing

Wash Your Hands!

Cross-contamination resulting from kitchen staff touching contaminated surfaces and then touching food being prepared to serve is one of the most common causes of food borne illness.

Employees should be trained on when to wash their hands and information regarding proper hand washing technique should be posted throughout your commercial kitchen or restaurant, especially over hand sinks and in bathrooms.When To Wash Hands:

  • After touching other food
  • After eating, drinking or smoking
  • After performing other tasks like cleaning, taking out trash, etc.
  • After coming into contact with their person or bodily fluids, like sneezing, coughing, or touching hair or skin

How To Wash Hands:

  • Wet hands first and then apply plenty of soap
  • Use warm water
  • Wash hands for at least 20 seconds (it’s longer than you think!)
  • Use the palms of the hands to rub soap over other areas like the back of the hand, fingers, wrists, and forearms
  • Use fingers to vigorously rub palms and between fingers, where bacteria and pathogens tend to collect
  • Dry in a sanitary manner: clean, unused paper towels or automatic hand dryer

Developing and training a hand washing procedure for your employees is important, but it’s also useless without effective enforcement.  Make sure you have a method for monitoring and reminding staff of proper hand washing procedures.

A little prevention, especially with something as easy as washing your hands, can go a long way in maintaining high restaurant food safety standards.

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The Skinny On The FDA’s 2009 Food Code

The Skinny On The FDAs 2009 Food CodeThe Food and Drug Administration has officially released an updated Food Code for the first time since 2005.  The Food Code details procedures for implementing a food safety program in any food service environment, from grocery stores to fine dining restaurants.  The agency updates the code every four years to accommodate new developments and address ongoing food safety issues.

The most significant changes to this year’s Food Code include:

  • Leafy greens must have a time and temperature control in a HACCP food safety program
  • New requirements focus on preventing the cross contamination of food allergens and aim to improve the awareness of allergens by food service workers
  • Children’s menus cannot include cooked-to-order meats
  • Revised cleaning and sanitizing procedures for restaurant equipment

Any restaurant’s food safety program should be informed by the guidelines set out in the Food Code.  This is especially true for restaurants employing a HACCP food safety program.  The updated code addresses two of the major food safety issues of the past couple years: allergens and pathogens in fresh uncooked greens like lettuce.

To view the complete 2009 Food Code, check out this link: http://www.fda.gov/Food/FoodSafety/RetailFoodProtection/FoodCode/FoodCode2009/default.htm

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Making The Grade: Should Restaurants Post Food Safety Info?

Making The Grade: Should Restaurants Post Food Safety Info?The Center For Science In The Public Interest, an advocacy group that has tangled with the food service industry before over menu nutrition labeling, is pushing for letter grades of restaurant’s latest health inspections to be posted in the front window.

The grade works on a 100-point scale and corresponds with a restaurant’s score: 90-100 being an A, etc.  A city councilwoman in Washington, D.C. has been pushing for a city ordinance requiring restaurants to display their letter grade, and her efforts have created some controversy in the food service industry.

Restaurants, led by the National Restaurant Association (NRA), point out that health inspections are not consistent from state to state or even city to city, making a grading system less reliable.  They also worry that restaurants who have had long records of cleanliness might suffer or even go out of business as a result of one bad day with the health inspector.

Yet some cities have already instituted a posted letter grade system, with good results.  New York City is the most recent convert.  Their letter grade system was instituted in March of this year.  Las Vegas, St. Louis, and Los Angeles also have similar systems.  In New York, restaurateur concerns about losing business have been addressed by allowing establishments to appeal a bad grade and are given a grace period to clean up their act before a bad grade is actually posted.

In Los Angeles, which has the longest-running food safety letter grade system, the local health department has found that hospital visits due to food poisoning have dropped 20 percent in the 11 years since their letter grade system was established.  Nationally, 76 million people are sickened by foodborne illnesses every year, and 40% of those can be traced to restaurants.Making The Grade: Should Restaurants Post Food Safety Info?

Los Angeles eateries with an “A” grade also saw a 6% increase in sales, tying good food safety practices with real revenue instead of fear of the health inspector.

Restaurant health inspections remain difficult for consumers to obtain in many U.S. cities, and making them available is running hurdles much larger than industry opposition: budget cuts in health departments across the country has made it more difficult to institute letter grading systems.  Many health departments have been forced to cut staff, and do not have the funds to build the infrastructure required to support a letter grade system.

Regardless, the coming years will see a steady improvement in the availability of health inspection reports, whether through a letter grade system or through online archives on health department websites.  Rather than resisting the coming changes, the food service industry would do well to get out ahead of this issue and focus on making the grade every time.

This will surely result in higher expenses for restaurants already operating on razor thin margins.  But the statistics show that foodborne illness can be reduced significantly when health inspection information is made public, and the time has come to give consumers the information they demand and well deserve.

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Is Your Food Safety Program This Hardcore? It Should Be.

Is Your Food Safety Program This Hardcore? It Should Be.McDonald’s hasn’t grown into a multinational restaurant chain without doing a lot of things right.  And whatever you think of their culinary achievements (or lack thereof), you can’t deny that they’ve built an empire in food service. If one lesson is clear from the rise of McDonald’s, it should be that you don’t build an empire without a premier food safety program.  As a recent article in USA Today revealed, McDonald’s is one of the best rated companies for food safety in the U.S.

How do you get that kind of recognition for your food safety program?
Through a very clear, extremely stringent program that addresses temperature and contamination issues at every stage in the food preparation process.  Incidentally, these are the same principles called for in a HACCP food safety program.  The only difference here is one of degree.

So what does a hardcore food safety program look like?

Beef is trucked to a McDonald’s food processing plant in huge steel boxes secured by a steel bolt that can only be cut by an employee at the plant.  If it’s opened any other way, they send it back.Is Your Food Safety Program This Hardcore? It Should Be.

The beef is tested for four or five different pathogens before it arrives at the plant, randomly during processing, and after the meat has been shaped into patties and frozen.  If a test comes back positive, two hours’ worth of processed beef is disposed of, as well as another two hours’ worth before and after the affected batch.

With those kinds of standards, McDonald’s can be fairly certain their beef patties will show up at any one of their locations clean and ready to serve.  And that’s when another round of food safety kicks in.

Each manager kicks off their shift by calibrating their thermometer.  Then each meat type that will be served during that shift (chicken nuggets, patties, etc.) is cooked according to specification and then temperature tested to make sure the product is out of the temperature danger zone.

McDonald’s also ensures every patty is cooked properly with a specially designed clamshell grill that does not open until the proper temperature has been reached.  That way even the greenest line cook can’t serve undercooked meat.  In a high turnover environment like food service, foolproof safeguards when it comes to meeting temperature requirements is key.

Finally, McDonald’s doesn’t forget about the most basic component of any food safety campaign: proper handwashing.  At the start of every hour every employee washes their hands, starting with management.  And at the half hour hand sanitizer is passed around for a quick cleanup.

Unfortunately, not every restaurant out there has a food safety program even approaching McDonald’s hardcore approach.  And not many have the resources or the buying power to dictate exact standards to their suppliers.   However, there are some basic things that McDonald’s does very well that can be applied to any food safety program, no matter what your budget is, including standardized temperature and handwashing procedures, a quantitative way to qualify suppliers and the product they provide you, and a system for disposing product that is suspect.

Your program may never get to be as hardcore as McDonald’s.  But if you want to build a food service empire, or even stay in business for any length of time, you’d do well to take your food safety to the next level.

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A Complete Guide To HACCP Food Safety

If you’re looking to implement a HACCP food safety program, this series of Back Burner posts will help you get started.  If you’re looking for ways to improve your existing food safety program, this is also a great place to start.  Food safety is a critical part of your food service business, and over the years, HACCP has proven itself to be one of the most effective ways to ensure your customers eat good food in your restaurant every single time.

This guide will walk you through the 7 HACCP principles one by one and will also cover supplemental information like Prerequisite Programs.  Get started on your HACCP program today:

1.  HACCP Principle 1 - An introduction and understanding the hazards and risk factors present in your restaurant.

2.  HACCP Principle 2 - The Difference Between CCP & SOP - Some things in your food safety program will be covered by your HACCP, while other things need to be established as Standard Operating Procedure.  Learn how to organize food safety tasks here.

3.  HACCP Principle 3 - Set Critical Limits - A critical limit is the minimum or maximum temperature food product must reach to stay out of the temperature danger zone where bacteria and pathogens can grow.

4.  HACCP Principle 4Establish Monitoring Procedures - Critical limits don’t do you a bit of good if you don’t monitor your operation and determine they are actually being met in practice, not just in theory.

5.  HACCP Principle 5Develop Corrective Actions - Critical limits are worthless without monitoring, and monitoring is worthless without a plan to take corrective action when monitoring finds problems in your HACCP program.

6.  HACCP Principle 6 - Ongoing Verification - The secret to a successful HACCP program is developing multiple layers of quality control that ensure the standards you set in Principle 3 are met on a consistent basis.  Ongoing verification is another layer in the monitoring process.

7.  HACCP Principle 7Keep Good Records - All that monitoring won’t help you if someone accuses your business of sickening them and you don’t have records of what you’ve been doing with your HACCP program.  Good records also help you every time the healt inspector arrives, so make sure you record the information you collect while monitoring your HACCP program.

8.  Prerequisite ProgramsThe essential partner to any HACCP food safety program is the Standard Operating Procedures that promote a clean and sanitary kitchen, like handwashing.  Get some prerequisite tips here.

Check out more articles on Tundra’s Resource Center for Food Safety

Shop Restaurant Supplies

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Louisiana Restaurant Association Fighting Back Against New FDA Regulations

Louisiana Restaurant Association Fighting Back Against New FDA RegulationsThe Food & Drug Administration announced in October that it would place a ban on untreated oysters coming from the Gulf of Mexico.  Louisiana is the primary harvester and exporter of Gulf oysters, and the industry accounts for $318 million dollars each year.

Gulf oysters have been deemed a food safety threat because a particularly nasty virus, vibrio vulnificus, can infect raw oysters during summer months.  About 15 people die in the United States every year as a result of consuming raw oysters infected with the virus.

The new FDA regulations will allow the sale of properly pasteurized oysters, but Louisiana restaurants and the oyster industry say pasteurization procedures will place a prohibitive cost on the industry and cause many oyster harvesters to shut down.  Perhaps predictably, Louisiana’s representatives in Congress have quickly voiced their opposition to the regulation proposal, citing the threat to jobs and increased costs.  A little more surprising (at least to me) is the opposition Louisiana Restaurant Association’s opposition to these regulations.

The evidence, however, leaves little doubt that regulating the Gulf oyster catch makes the public safer.  California has had a ban in place on untreated Gulf oysters for six years.  In that time, deaths from bad oysters went from 40 in the 10 year period leading up to the ban to zero.

Anyone in the restaurant industry knows how important food safety is, and restaurants have taken food safety very seriously for so long precisely because trust is a key element in the success of any place preparing and serving something that could potentially make customers sick.

That’s why I find the Louisiana Restaurant Association’s opposition to these new FDA regulations a little strange.  Sure, no one wants to see the operating costs of a vital local industry go up, especially in an area of the country that’s seen its fair share of hard times in recent years.  But how can anyone in the food service industry possibly justify opposing regulations on a type of food that has been proven to cause death in a certain segment of potential customers?

That segment is admittedly small.  Yet the number of actual deaths in the spinach and tomato scares of recent years was also extremely small, and yet every restaurant and industry association reacted by pulling those items off their menus and taking whatever steps were necessary to protect consumers and avoid a food safety issue.

The Louisiana Restaurant Association’s position seems inexplicable to me.  Perhaps someone would care to clarify for me – if so, leave a comment below.

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Are You Ready For Flu Season?

Are You Ready For Flu Season?Personally, if I never hear another story about H1N1 (swine) flu again, I’ll die a happy man.  Unfortunately, the grim reality is everyone is going to have to take steps to combat the spread of flu this winter, and restaurants are no exception.  Organizations like the National Restaurant Association are already educating restaurants about ways to inhibit the spread of viruses, and the food service industry as a whole is taking this flu season very seriously.

For restaurants, preventing the spread of viruses comes down to removing two things: sick employees from the building and any potential contaminant from employee’s hands.

Staff that is exhibiting flu-like symptoms should be sent home immediately and told to return one full day after recovering from the worst part of the sickness.  From a management standpoint, make sure multiple people in the restaurant are responsible for identifying staff with symptoms so that nobody slips through the cracks.  Also make sure you communicate clearly with your staff about the importance of staying home while they’re sick.  Finally, it’s important to have a plan in place in case multiple people are sick at once so that you don’t miss a beat during the rush.  This is where time spent on cross-training will pay you back handsomely.

Handwashing is a much more straightforward proposition.  Review proper handwashing techniques with your employees and step up the enforcement of your standard procedures on when to wash hands.  Many restaurants have also started introducing disposable gloves for kitchen staff that directly contact food during preparation; if you haven’t added this to your food safety program yet, now is the time to consider it seriously.

Besides technique and enforcement, the other key to ensuring your employees have clean hands is good equipment.  The problem is that the very viruses you’re trying to contain tend to collect around communal areas with a lot of moisture, like sinks and faucets.

Investing in some good hand sink equipment can go a long way towards improving your restaurant’s food safety.  Some key elements to a good hand sink include:Are You Ready For Flu Season?

Easily accessible towel and soap dispensers.  Dispensers make sure your employees actually use the soap and the towels and limit the number of surfaces they touch after cleaning their hands.

Knee or foot pedals.  A pedal allows staff washing their hands to turn the water off and one without having to use their freshly cleaned hands.  Pedals also tend to use less water because they automatically shut off, which mean lower utility bills for you.  These pedals can also be retrofitted on existing hand sinks.

Wrist blade faucet handles.  Wrist blade handles are the same ones you see in doctor’s offices.  Their shape allows you to use your forearm or wrist to turn off the water instead of your hands, which helps prevent re-contamination.  Use wrist blade faucet handles if you don’t have a knee or foot pedal.

Stainless steel sinks.  Stainless is easy to clean and doesn’t offer a friendly surface for pathogens to hang out.  Almost all new hand sinks are stainless, and if your staff is still using an older sink, now is a great time to upgrade.

The food service industry is taking the spread of flu this season very seriously for a very important reason: it’s good for business.  Widespread sickness doesn’t make people want to go out and eat, and after the beating the industry has taken over the past year, an outbreak connected with a restaurant would be disastrous.

For all we know, an outbreak might be inevitable.  Having the right combination of standard procedures, managerial enforcement, and equipment is the best you can do to protect your business against infection.

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10 Food Safety Tips

One of the most important responsibilities of any restaurateur is the proper implementation of a food safety program.  A lapse in food safety can spell the doom of your restaurant, and if you’re just opening a new restaurant, it can mean a delayed opening night.

Good food safety isn’t something you achieve once and then forget about.  It’s something you practice every day your restaurant is open, from the moment product leaves the truck at the back door all the way through to the time the busboy clears the plates after your guests have finished their meals.

Below are 10 food safety tips from The Back Burner that will help you brush up your program.  You have probably already implemented many of these strategies to one degree or another.  Think of this a refresher course and the chance to learn something you didn’t know.  And if you have food safety topics not covered here that really should be, let us know!

1. Shop For Suppliers - As all of the food recent food recalls have taught us, food safety doesn’t start when product comes off the truck at your restaurant.  The supply chain is much longer than that, and things can go wrong well before you ever lay eyes on a box of tomatoes or a head of lettuce.  Learn how to diversify your supply chain and hold it accountable.

2. Managing Temperature - One of the most important aspects of food safety is monitoring food temperatures and making sure it’s always out of the danger zone.  Learn some effective strategies for managing temperature.

3. Proper Handwashing - All your food safety management strategies can go down the drain in a flash if one employee doesn’t wash their hands properly and then handles food.  Learn how to train and supervise employees effectively here.

4. Be Your Own Health Inspector - Why wait for the health inspector to tell you what needs to  be fixed with your food safety program?  Be proactive and think like an inspector before they come to your restaurant.  That way, your inspections will be a breeze.

5. In The Field At Turley’s - This venerable Boulder restaurant shares some of their food safety strategies for the benefit of all.  There’s nothing like some real world experience to put things in perspective.10 Food Safety Tips

6. Understanding NSF and UL - Everybody’s seen the NSF and UL labels on products in their restaurant’s kitchen.  What do those labels really mean?  Learn more in this article.

7. HACCP - If you don’t know what this stands for, then you definitely need to read this article.  Even if you do, you might learn a couple things about this core food safety program.

8. Data Loggers - If you don’t use this vital piece of food safety equipment, you might consider it after reading this article.

9. Vacuum Breakers And Backflow Valves - Clean water is vital to any food safety program, and increasingly health inspectors are looking at restaurant plumbing to make sure you are safeguarding the water supply.  Some simple plumbing parts you can install yourself will make the inspector happy and keep your water safe.

10. Safe Seafood - Seafood handling can be especially tricky in a restaurant.  Learn how to keep your seafood tasting great and your customers safe.

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Can Google Improve Food Safety?

Can Google Improve Food Safety?A pilot project currently in development at Google will enable health officials to spot outbreaks of deadly food borne illnesses 7 to 10  days faster than the Center for Disease Control’s (CDC) current system.

Google accomplishes this by tracking queries entered into its search engine by people who are trying to find information on symptoms and sicknesses they’re experiencing.  Google has already launched Flu Trends, which tracks search queries like “flu symptoms” and identifies geographic areas where those queries are spiking.

The data Google collects matches the flu trends published by the CDC, suggesting Google’s information is accurate.  Now Google is planning to apply this system to E. coli and salmonella outbreaks so that the source of the contamination can be contained much more rapidly than it is today.

Seems like a great idea, right?  Not everyone is so excited.  Privacy advocates have already raised the alarm, warning that any database that collects and tracks the behavior of such a large number of free citizens will inevitably lead to abuse.

Google counters that this information is for the greater good and that individuals will remain anonymous.  Of course, anonymity has been promised before when it comes to large databases and it seems like there’s always a leak.  Just ask the thousands of Americans who have had their financial information compromised by leaks and hacks in the past two years.

For the food service industry, Google’s trend tracker could be a double-edged sword.  Of course, food safety is always a primary concern for restaurateurs.  But what if Google, in the admittedly honorable process of identifying a contamination source, starts naming restaurants frequented by people who are getting sick?  Those businesses would be dead and gone in a matter of minutes, regardless of the level of responsibility they deserved for the outbreak.

So where should such a powerful tool draw the line?  And where is Google planning on drawing that line?  The technology is still so new it’s impossible to tell yet, but as the data  we enter into the world’s most popular and powerful search engine gets used to track our behaviors, the conflict between privacy and information seems more and more inevitable.

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